如何创建 deb 软件包

yyweii posted @ 2008年5月01日 09:30 in Linux with tags ubuntu package , 3743 阅读

摘录自 creating and distributing deb files written by Andrew Min

创建一个 deb 软件包有多种方式:

1. 使用 CheckInstall
最简单也是最糟糕的一种方式。你要做就是运行 make 编译源代码,然后运行 checkinstall 创建 deb 软件包。但是这种方式不会安装依赖也不允许你声明依赖。所以用户必须手动安装依赖。
和 AutoDeb
关于 checkinstall 的教程:

2. 使用 Debian Package Tools FE
一个基于 Qt 的带界面的工具,比 checkinstall 好,但也不是很理想。

3. 手动创建软件包

第一步: 编译安装软件

第二步: 创建 control 文件。
下面是一个 control 文件的例子:

Package: fungame
Version: 1.0
Section: games
Priority: optional
Architecture: i386
Essential: no
Depends: libfungame, gamelibrary (>=1.4.0)
Recommends: fungamesaves1 | fungamesave2
Suggests: optionalfungame
Installed-Size: 1024
Maintainer: Game Maker[]
Conflicts: stupidfungamethatbreaksthisone
Replaces: oldfungame
Description: A short description of the program. A longer description


软件包名字(Package)只能使用小写字母、数字、和"+"、"-"。版本(Version)里不能包含"-"。分类(Section)里可以使用 admin, games, gnome, kde, mail, misc, net, sound, text, utils 和 web。优先级(Priority)大多数时候是 optional。架构(Architecture)可以是 i386, AMD64, PowerPC 等。必要(Essential)说明此软件包是否是必须的,大多数时候不是必须的。

依赖(Depends)、推荐(Recommends)、建议(Suggests)这三项是相似的,软件包名之间用逗号分隔,也可以使用管道(|),表明“或”的关系。你也可以在括号里指定软件包版本号, << 小于,<= 小于等于,= 等于,>= 大于等于,>> 大于。

安装大小(Install-Size)表明软件安装后的大小,单位 kb。维护者(Maintainer),你的名字后加[你的 email ]。冲突(Conflicts),一些与之冲突的软件包名。替换(Replaces),此软件包将会替换的软件包名。

第三步: 复制程序和创建链接
假设工作目录是 ~/fungame/,把 control 文件保存于 ~/fungame/DEBIAN/。检查 makefile 文件,看一下程序被安装到了哪里,然后把这些程序复制到工作目录的相应目录里。

例如: ---> 表示 复制到
/usr/local/fungame/ ---> ~/fungame/usr/local/fungame/
/usr/bin/fungame ---> ~/fungame/usr/bin/
你也可以在 ~/fungame/usr/share/applications/ 下创建一个 fungame.desktop 文件,用来创建链接。
下面是一个 desktop 文件的简单例子:

[Desktop Entry]
Name=Fun Game

第四步: 创建 deb 软件包
cd 切换到你要保存 deb 软件包的目录,使用如下命令:

dpkg -b directory packagename.deb

directory 是包含 DEBIAN/ 的目录(~/fungame/)
packagename 应该遵循 软件名_版本号_架构.deb 的命名习惯。

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